Clear and Unmistakable Error
What are the guidelines for CUE (Clear and Unmistakable Error)?
§20.1403 Rule 1403. What constitutes clear and unmistakable error; what does not.
(a) General. Clear and unmistakable error is a very specific and rare kind of error. It is the kind of error, of fact or of law, that when called to the attention of later reviewers compels the conclusion, to which reasonable minds could not differ, that the result would have been manifestly different but for the error. Generally, either the correct facts, as they were known at the time, were not before the Board, or the statutory and regulatory provisions extant at the time were incorrectly applied.
(b) Record to be reviewed.
(1) General. Review for clear and unmistakable error in a prior Board decision must be based on the record and the law that existed when that decision was made.
(2) Special rule for Board decisions issued on or after July 21, 1992. For a Board decision issued on or after July 21, 1992, the record that existed when that decision was made includes relevant documents possessed by the Department of Veterans Affairs not later than 90 days before such record was transferred to the Board for review in reaching that decision, provided that the documents could reasonably be expected to be part of the record.
(c) Errors that constitute clear and unmistakable error. To warrant revision of a Board decision
on the grounds of clear and unmistakable error, there must have been an error in the
Board's adjudication of the appeal which, had it not been made, would have manifestly
changed the outcome when it was made. If it is not absolutely clear that a different result
would have ensued, the error complained of cannot be clear and unmistakable.
(d) Examples of situations that are not clear and unmistakable error.
(1) Changed diagnosis. A new medical diagnosis that “corrects” an earlier diagnosis
considered in a Board decision.
(2) Duty to assist. The Secretary's failure to fulfill the duty to assist.
(3) Evaluation of evidence. A disagreement as to how the facts were weighed or evaluated.
(e) Change in interpretation. Clear and unmistakable error does not include the otherwise
correct application of a statute or regulation where, subsequent to the Board decision
challenged, there has been a change in the interpretation of the statute or regulation.
(Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501(a), 7111)
§20.1404 Rule 1404. Filing and pleading requirements; withdrawal.
(a) General. A motion for revision of a decision based on clear and unmistakable error must be in writing, and must be signed by the moving party or that party's representative. The motion must include the name of the veteran; the name of the moving party if other than the veteran; the applicable Department of Veterans Affairs file number; and the date of the Board of Veterans' Appeals decision to which the motion relates. If the applicable decision involved more than one issue on appeal, the motion must identify the specific issue, or issues, to which the motion pertains. Motions which fail to comply with the requirements set forth in this paragraph shall be dismissed without prejudice to refiling under this subpart.
(b) Specific allegations required. The motion must set forth clearly and specifically the alleged clear and unmistakable error, or errors, of fact or law in the Board decision, the legal or factual basis for such allegations, and why the result would have been manifestly different but for the alleged error. Non-specific allegations of failure to follow regulations or failure to give due process, or any other general, non-specific allegations of error, are insufficient to satisfy the requirement of the previous sentence. Motions which fail to comply with the requirements set forth in this paragraph shall be dismissed without prejudice to refiling under this subpart.
(c) Filing. A motion for revision of a decision based on clear and unmistakable error may be filed at any time. Such motions should be filed at the following address: Director, Management and Administration (01E), Board of Veterans' Appeals, 810 Vermont Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20420.
(d) Requests not filed at the Board. A request for revision transmitted to the Board by the Secretary pursuant to 38 U.S.C. 7111(f) (relating to requests for revision filed with the Secretary other than at the Board) shall be treated as if a motion had been filed pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section.
(e) Motions for reconsideration. A motion for reconsideration, as described in subpart K of this part, whenever filed, will not be considered a motion under this subpart.
(f) Withdrawal. A motion under this subpart may be withdrawn at any time before the Board promulgates a decision on the motion. Such withdrawal shall be in writing, shall be filed at the address listed in paragraph (c) of this section, and shall be signed by the moving party or by such party's representative. If such a writing is timely received, the motion shall be dismissed without prejudice to refiling under this subpart. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501(a), 7111)
[57 FR 4109, February 3, 1992, as amended at 66 FR 35903, July 10, 2001; 67 FR 16023, Apr. 4, 2002]
I'll be back with some of my own hints that I have acquired from some great minds....